Upsun User Documentation

Beta Feature

The Upsun composable image is currently available in Beta. This feature as well as its documentation is subject to change.

Composable image

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The Upsun composable image provides enhanced flexibility when defining your app. It allows you to install several runtimes and tools in your application container, in a “one image to rule them all” approach.

The composable image is built on Nix, which offers the following benefits:

  • You can add as many packages to your application container as you need, choosing from over 80,000 packages from the Nixpkgs collection.
  • The packages you add are built in total isolation, so you can install different versions of the same package.
  • With Nix, there are no undeclared dependencies in your source code. What works on your local machine is guaranteed to work on any other machine.

This page introduces all the settings available to configure your composable image from your .upsun/config.yaml file (usually located at the root of your Git repository).
Note that multi-app projects can be set in various ways.

Primary application properties Anchor to this heading

All application configuration takes place in a .upsun/config.yaml file, with each application configured under a unique key beneath the top-level applications key.

It is possible to use multiple runtimes in a single application container, for instance PHP, NodeJS and Python, while remaining in control of their versions.

For example, the unified .upsun/config.yaml file may look like the following:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  frontend:
    stack:
      - "php@8.3":
        extensions:
          - apcu
          - sodium
          - xsl
          - pdo_sqlite
      - "nodejs@20"
      - "python@3.12"
    # Additional frontend configuration

The following table presents all properties available at the level just below the unique application name (frontend above).

The column Set in instance? defines whether the given property can be overridden within a web or workers instance. To override any part of a property, you have to provide the entire property.

Name Type Required Set in instance? Description
stack An array of Nix packages Yes No A list of packages from the Upsun collection of supported runtimes and/or from NixPkgs.
relationships A dictionary of relationships Yes Connections to other services and apps.
mounts A dictionary of mounts Yes Directories that are writable even after the app is built. Allocated disk for mounts is defined with a separate resource configuration call using upsun resources:set.
web A web instance N/A How the web application is served.
workers A worker instance N/A Alternate copies of the application to run as background processes.
timezone string No The timezone for crons to run. Format: a TZ database name. Defaults to UTC, which is the timezone used for all logs no matter the value here. See also app runtime timezones
access An access dictionary Yes Access control for roles accessing app environments.
variables A variables dictionary Yes Variables to control the environment.
firewall A firewall dictionary Yes Outbound firewall rules for the application.
hooks A hooks dictionary No What commands run at different stages in the build and deploy process.
crons A cron dictionary No Scheduled tasks for the app.
source A source dictionary No Information on the app’s source code and operations that can be run on it.
additional_hosts An additional hosts dictionary Yes Maps of hostnames to IP addresses.

Stack Anchor to this heading

Use the stack key to define which runtimes and binaries you want to install in your application container. Define them as a YAML array as follows:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  app:
    stack: [ "<nixpackage>@<version>" ]
    # OR
    stack:
      - "<nixpackage>@<version>"

To add a language to your stack, use the <nixpackage>@<version> format.
To add a tool to your stack, use the <nixpackage> format, as no version is needed.

Primary runtime Anchor to this heading

If you add multiple runtimes to your application container, the first declared runtime becomes the primary runtime. The primary runtime is the one that is automatically started.

To start other declared runtimes, you need to start them manually, using web commands. To find out which start command to use, go to the Languages section, and visit the documentation page dedicated to your runtime.

Supported Nix packages Anchor to this heading

Depending on the Nix package, you can select only the major runtime version, or the major and minor runtime versions as shown in the table. Security and other patches are applied automatically.

Language Nix package Supported version(s)
Clojure clojure 1
Common Lisp (SBCL) sbcl 2
Elixir elixir 1.15, 1.14
Go golang 1.22, 1.21, 1.20
Java java 21
Javascript/Bun bun 1
JavaScript/Node.js nodejs 21, 20, 18
Perl perl 5
PHP php 8.3, 8.2, 8.1
Python python 3.12, 3.11, 3.10, 3.9, 2.7

Example:

You want to add PHP version 8.3 and facedetect to your application container. To do so, use the following configuration:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  app:
    stack: [ "php@8.3", "facedetect" ]
    # OR
    stack:
      - "php@8.3"
      - "facedetect"

PHP extensions and Python packages Anchor to this heading

When you add PHP or Python to your application container, you can define which extensions (for PHP) or packages (for Python) you also want to add to your stack.

To find out which extensions you can install with your runtime, follow these steps:

  1. Go to the NixOS search.
  2. Enter a runtime and click Search.
  3. In the Package sets side bar, select the right set of extensions/packages for your runtime version.
    You can choose the desired extensions/packages from the filtered results.

Screenshot of the Nix package sets selection for PHP@8.3

Install PHP extensions Anchor to this heading

To enable PHP extensions, specify a list of extensions below the language definition.
To disable PHP extensions, specify a list of disabled_extensions below the language definition.
For instance:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack:
      - "php@8.3":
        extensions:
          - apcu
          - sodium
          - xsl
          - pdo_sqlite
        disabled_extensions:
          - gd

Install Python packages Anchor to this heading

To install Python packages, add them to your stack as new packages. To do so, use the full name of the package.

For instance, to install python312Packages.yq, use the following configuration:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    stack:
      - "python@3.12"
      - "python312Packages.yq" # python package specific

Alternatively, if you need to include configuration options for your extensions, use either your php.ini file or environment variables.

Example configuration Anchor to this heading

Here is a full composable image configuration example. Note the use of the <nixpackage>@<version> format.

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    stack:
      - "php@8.3"
          extensions:
            - apcu
            - sodium
            - xsl
            - pdo_sqlite
      - "python@3.12"
      - "python312Packages.yq" # python package specific
      - "yq"                   # tool

Combine single-runtime and composable images Anchor to this heading

In a multiple application context, you can use a mix of single-runtime images and composable images. Here is an example configuration including a frontend app and a backend app:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  frontend:
    stack:
      - "php@8.3"
        extensions:
          - apcu
          - sodium
          - xsl
          - pdo_sqlite
      - "python@3.12"
      - "python312Packages.yq" # python package specific
  backend:
    type: 'nodejs:20

Resources Anchor to this heading

Resources for application containers are not committed to YAML files, but instead managed over the API using either the Console or the upsun resources:set command.

For more information, see how to manage resources.

Relationships Anchor to this heading

To allow containers in your project to communicate with one another, you need to define relationships between them. You can define a relationship between an app and a service, or between two apps.

The quickest way to define a relationship between your app and a service is to use the service’s default endpoint.
However, some services allow you to define multiple databases, cores, and/or permissions. In these cases, you can’t rely on default endpoints. Instead, you can explicitly define multiple endpoints when setting up your relationships.

To define a relationship between your app and a service:

Use the following configuration:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
    APP_NAME: 
        # ...
        relationships:
            SERVICE_NAME: 

The SERVICE_NAME is the name of the service as defined in its configuration. It is used as the relationship name, and associated with a null value. This instructs Upsun to use the service’s default endpoint to connect your app to the service.

For example, if you define the following configuration:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
    APP_NAME: 
        # ...
        relationships:
            mariadb: 

Upsun looks for a service named mariadb in your .upsun/config.yaml file, and connects your app to it through the service’s default endpoint.

For reference, the equivalent configuration using explicit endpoints would be the following:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
    APP_NAME: 
        # ...
        relationships:
            mariadb:
                service: mariadb
                endpoint: mysql

You can define any number of relationships in this way:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
    APP_NAME: 
        # ...
        relationships:
            mariadb:
            redis:
            elasticsearch: 

Use the following configuration:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
    APP_NAME: 
        # ...
        relationships:
            RELATIONSHIP_NAME:
                service: SERVICE_NAME 
                endpoint: ENDPOINT_NAME
  • RELATIONSHIP_NAME is the name you want to give to the relationship.
  • SERVICE_NAME is the name of the service as defined in its configuration.
  • ENDPOINT_NAME is the endpoint your app will use to connect to the service (refer to the service reference to know which value to use).

For example, to define a relationship named database that connects your app to a service called mariadb through the db1 endpoint, use the following configuration:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
    APP_NAME: 
        # ...
        relationships:
            database: # The name of the relationship. 
                service: mariadb
                endpoint: db1

For more information on how to handle multiple databases, multiple cores, and/or different permissions with services that support such features, see each service’s dedicated page:

You can add as many relationships as you want to your app configuration, using both default and explicit endpoints according to your needs:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
    APP_NAME: 
        # ...
        relationships:
            database1: 
                service: mariadb
                endpoint: admin
            database2:
                service: mariadb
                endpoint: legacy
            cache:
                service: redis
            search:
                service: elasticsearch

Available disk space Anchor to this heading

Disk for application containers are not committed to YAML files, but instead managed over the API using either the Console or the upsun resources:set command.

For more information, see how to manage resources.

Downsize a disk Anchor to this heading

You can decrease the size of an existing disk for an app. If you do so, be aware that:

  • Backups from before the downsize are incompatible and can no longer be used. You need to create new backups.
  • The downsize fails if there’s more data on the disk than the desired size.

Mounts Anchor to this heading

After your app is built, its file system is read-only. To make changes to your app’s code, you need to use Git.

For enhanced flexibility, Upsun allows you to define and use writable directories called “mounts”. Mounts give you write access to files generated by your app (such as cache and log files) and uploaded files without going through Git.

When you define a mount, you are mounting an external directory to your app container, much like you would plug a hard drive into your computer to transfer data.

Define a mount Anchor to this heading

To define a mount, use the following configuration:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "nodejs@20" ]
    mounts:
      'MOUNT_PATH':
        source: MOUNT_TYPE
        source_path: SOURCE_PATH_LOCATION

MOUNT_PATH is the path to your mount within the app container (relative to the app’s root). If you already have a directory with that name, you get a warning that it isn’t accessible after the build. See how to troubleshoot the warning.

Name Type Required Description
source storage, tmp, or service Yes Specifies the type of the mount:

- By design, storage mounts can be shared between instances of the same app. You can also configure them so they are shared between different apps.

- tmp mounts are local ephemeral mounts, where an external directory is mounted to the /tmp directory of your app.
The content of a tmp mount may be removed during infrastructure maintenance operations. Therefore, tmp mounts allow you to store files that you’re not afraid to lose, such as your application cache that can be seamlessly rebuilt.
Note that the /tmp directory has a maximum allocation of 8 GB.

- service mounts can be useful if you want to explicitly define and use a Network Storage service to share data between different apps (instead of using a storage mount).
source_path string No Specifies where the mount points inside the external directory.

- If you explicitly set a source_path, your mount points to a specific subdirectory in the external directory.

- If the source_path is an empty string (""), your mount points to the entire external directory.

- If you don’t define a source_path, Upsun uses the MOUNT_PATH as default value, without leading or trailing slashes.
For example, if your mount lives in the /web/uploads/ directory in your app container, it will point to a directory named web/uploads in the external directory.

WARNING: Changing the name of your mount affects the source_path when it’s undefined. See how to ensure continuity and maintain access to your files.
service string The purpose of the service key depends on your use case.

In a multi-app context where a storage mount is shared between apps, service is required. Its value is the name of the app whose mount you want to share. See how to share a mount between several apps.

In a multi-app context where a Network Storage service (service mount) is shared between apps, service is required and specifies the name of that Network Storage.

The accessibility to the web of a mounted directory depends on the web.locations configuration. Files can be all public, all private, or with different rules for different paths and file types.

Note that when you remove a tmp mount from your .upsun/config.yaml file, the mounted directory isn’t deleted. The files still exist on disk until manually removed, or until the app container is moved to another host during a maintenance operation.

Example configuration Anchor to this heading

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "nodejs@20" ]
    mounts:
      'web/uploads':
        source: storage
        source_path: uploads
      '/.tmp_platformsh':
        source: tmp
        source_path: files/.tmp_platformsh
      '/build':
        source: storage
        source_path: files/build
      '/.cache':
        source: tmp
        source_path: files/.cache
      '/node_modules/.cache':
        source: tmp
        source_path: files/node_modules/.cache

Ensure continuity when changing the name of your mount Anchor to this heading

Changing the name of your mount affects the default source_path.

Say you have a /my/cache/ mount with an undefined source_path:

.upsun/config.yaml
mounts:
  '/my/cache/':
    source: tmp

If you rename the mount to /cache/files/, it will point to a new, empty /cache/files/ directory.

To ensure continuity, you need to explicitly define the source_path as the previous name of the mount, without leading or trailing slashes:

.upsun/config.yaml
mounts:
 '/cache/files/':
   source: tmp
   source_path: my/cache

The /cache/files/ mount will point to the original /my/cache/ directory, maintaining access to all your existing files in that directory.

Share a mount between several apps Anchor to this heading

By design, storage mounts are shared between different instances of the same app, which enables horizontal scaling.

In a multi-application context, you can even share a storage mount between different applications in the same project.

To do so, you need to define a storage mount in each of your app containers, and point each of those mounts to the same shared external network directory.

Use the following configuration:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  app1:
    mounts:
      'MOUNT_PATH_1':
        source: storage
        source_path: SOURCE_PATH_LOCATION

  app2:
    mounts:
      'MOUNT_PATH_2':
        source: storage
        service: app1
        source_path: SOURCE_PATH_LOCATION
  • MOUNT_PATH_1 and MOUNT_PATH_2 are the paths to each mount within their respective app container (relative to the app’s root).
  • When configuring the first storage mount, you don’t need to include the service key. The first mount implicitly points to an external network directory. The service key is required for subsequent mounts, to ensure they use the same external network directory as the first mount.
  • The source_path allows you to point each mount to the same subdirectory within the shared external network directory.

Note that another way to share data between apps through a mount is by explicitly defining a Network Storage service.

Local mounts Anchor to this heading

If you need a local mount (i.e. unique per container), Upsun allows you to mount a directory within the /tmp directory of your app. However, the following limitations apply:

  • Content from tmp mounts is removed when your app container is moved to another host during an infrastructure maintenance operation
  • The /tmp directory has a maximum allocation of 8 GB

Therefore, tmp mounts are ideal to store non-critical data, such as your application cache which can be seamlessly rebuilt, but aren’t suitable for storing files that are necessary for your app to run smoothly.

Note that Upsun will provide new local mounts in the near future.

Overlapping mounts Anchor to this heading

The locations of mounts as they are visible to application containers can overlap somewhat. For example:

applications:
  my_app:
    # ...
    mounts:
      'var/cache_a':
        source: storage
        source_path: cacheA
      'var/cache_b':
        source: tmp
        source_path: cacheB
      'var/cache_c':
        source: instance
        source_path: cacheC

In this case, it does not matter that each mount is of a different source type. Each mount is restricted to a subfolder within var, and all is well.

The following, however, is not allowed and will result in a failure:

applications:
  my_app:
    # ...
    mounts:
      'var/':
        source: storage
        source_path: cacheA
      'var/cache_b':
        source: tmp
        source_path: cacheB
      'var/cache_c':
        source: instance
        source_path: cacheC

The storage mount type specifically exists to share data between instances of the same application, whereas tmp and instance are meant to restrict data to build time and runtime of a single application instance, respectively. These allowances are not compatible, and will result in an error if pushed.

Web Anchor to this heading

Use the web key to configure the web server running in front of your app.

Name Type Required Description
commands A web commands dictionary See note The command to launch your app.
upstream An upstream dictionary How the front server connects to your app.
locations A locations dictionary How the app container responds to incoming requests.

See some examples of how to configure what’s served.

Web commands Anchor to this heading

Name Type Required Description
pre_start string Command run just prior to start, which can be useful when you need to run per-instance actions.
start string See note The command to launch your app. If it terminates, it’s restarted immediately.

Example:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "python@3.9" ]
    web:
      commands:
        start: 'uwsgi --ini conf/server.ini'

This command runs every time your app is restarted, regardless of whether or not new code is deployed.

Required command Anchor to this heading

On all containers other than PHP, the value for start should be treated as required.

On PHP containers, it’s optional and defaults to starting PHP-FPM (/usr/bin/start-php-app). It can also be set explicitly on a PHP container to run a dedicated process, such as React PHP or Amp. See how to set up alternate start commands on PHP.

Upstream Anchor to this heading

Name Type Required Description Default
socket_family tcp or unix Whether your app listens on a Unix or TCP socket. Defaults to tcp for all primary runtimes except PHP; for PHP the default is unix.
protocol http or fastcgi Whether your app receives incoming requests over HTTP or FastCGI. Default varies based on the primary runtimes.

For PHP, the defaults are configured for PHP-FPM and shouldn’t need adjustment. For all other containers, the default for protocol is http.

The following example is the default on non-PHP containers:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "python@3.9" ]
    web:
      upstream:
        socket_family: tcp
        protocol: http

Where to listen Anchor to this heading

Where to listen depends on your setting for web.upstream.socket_family (defaults to tcp).

socket_family Where to listen
tcp The port specified by the PORT environment variable
unix The Unix socket file specified by the SOCKET environment variable

If your application isn’t listening at the same place that the runtime is sending requests, you see 502 Bad Gateway errors when you try to connect to your website.

Locations Anchor to this heading

Each key in the locations dictionary is a path on your site with a leading /. For example.com, a / matches example.com/ and /admin matches example.com/admin. When multiple keys match an incoming request, the most-specific applies.

The following table presents possible properties for each location:

Name Type Default Description
root string The directory to serve static assets for this location relative to the app’s root directory (see source.root). Must be an actual directory inside the root directory.
passthru boolean or string false Whether to forward disallowed and missing resources from this location to the app. A string is a path with a leading / to the controller, such as /index.php.

If your app is in PHP, when setting passthru to true, you might want to set scripts to false for enhanced security. This prevents PHP scripts from being executed from the specified location. You might also want to set allow to false so that not only PHP scripts can’t be executed, but their source code also can’t be delivered.
index Array of strings or null Files to consider when serving a request for a directory. When set, requires access to the files through the allow or rules keys.
expires string -1 How long static assets are cached. The default means no caching. Setting it to a value enables the Cache-Control and Expires headers. Times can be suffixed with ms = milliseconds, s = seconds, m = minutes, h = hours, d = days, w = weeks, M = months/30d, or y = years/365d.
allow boolean true Whether to allow serving files which don’t match a rule.
scripts boolean Whether to allow scripts to run. Doesn’t apply to paths specified in passthru. Meaningful only on PHP containers.
headers A headers dictionary Any additional headers to apply to static assets, mapping header names to values. Responses from the app aren’t affected.
request_buffering A request buffering dictionary See below Handling for chunked requests.
rules A rules dictionary Specific overrides for specific locations.

Rules Anchor to this heading

The rules dictionary can override most other keys according to a regular expression. The key of each item is a regular expression to match paths exactly. If an incoming request matches the rule, it’s handled by the properties under the rule, overriding any conflicting rules from the rest of the locations dictionary.

Under rules, you can set all of the other possible locations properties except root, index and request_buffering.

In the following example, the allow key disallows requests for static files anywhere in the site. This is overridden by a rule that explicitly allows common image file formats.

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "python@3.9" ]
    web:
      locations:
        '/':
          # Handle dynamic requests
          root: 'public'
          passthru: '/index.php'
          # Disallow static files
          allow: false
          rules:
            # Allow common image files only.
            '\.(jpe?g|png|gif|svgz?|css|js|map|ico|bmp|eot|woff2?|otf|ttf)$':
              allow: true

Request buffering Anchor to this heading

Request buffering is enabled by default to handle chunked requests as most app servers don’t support them. The following table shows the keys in the request_buffering dictionary:

Name Type Required Default Description
enabled boolean Yes true Whether request buffering is enabled.
max_request_size string 250m The maximum size to allow in one request.

The default configuration would look like this:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "python@3.9" ]
    web:
      locations:
        '/':
          passthru: true
          request_buffering:
            enabled: true
            max_request_size: 250m

Workers Anchor to this heading

Workers are exact copies of the code and compilation output as a web instance after a build hook. They use the same container image.

Workers can’t accept public requests and so are suitable only for background tasks. If they exit, they’re automatically restarted.

The keys of the workers definition are the names of the workers. You can then define how each worker differs from the web instance using the top-level properties.

Each worker can differ from the web instance in all properties except for:

  • crons as cron jobs don’t run on workers
  • hooks as the build hook must be the same and the deploy and post_deploy hooks don’t run on workers.

A worker named queue that was small and had a different start command could look like this:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "python@3.9" ]
    workers:
      queue:
        commands:
          start: |
            ./worker.sh            

Workers require resource definition using upsun resources:set, same as application containers. For more information, see how to manage resources.

Access Anchor to this heading

The access dictionary has one allowed key:

Name Allowed values Default Description
ssh admin, contributor, or viewer contributor Defines the minimum role required to access app environments via SSH.

In the following example, only users with admin permissions for the given environment type can access the deployed environment via SSH:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "python@3.9" ]
    access:
      ssh: admin

Variables Anchor to this heading

Upsun provides a number of ways to set variables. Variables set in your app configuration have the lowest precedence, meaning they’re overridden by any conflicting values provided elsewhere.

All variables set in your app configuration must have a prefix. Some prefixes have specific meanings.

Variables with the prefix env are available as a separate environment variable. All other variables are available in the PLATFORM_VARIABLES environment variable.

The following example sets two variables:

  • A variable named env:AUTHOR with the value Juan that’s available in the environment as AUTHOR
  • A variable named d8config:system.site:name with the value My site rocks that’s available in the PLATFORM_VARIABLES environment variable
.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "python@3.9" ]
    variables:
      env:
        AUTHOR: 'Juan'
      d8config:
        "system.site:name": 'My site rocks'

You can also define and access more complex values.

Firewall Anchor to this heading

Set limits in outbound traffic from your app with no impact on inbound requests.

The outbound key is required and contains one or more rules. The rules define what traffic is allowed; anything unspecified is blocked.

Each rule has the following properties where at least one is required and ips and domains can’t be specified together:

Name Type Default Description
ips Array of strings ["0.0.0.0/0"] IP addresses in CIDR notation. See a CIDR format converter.
domains Array of strings Fully qualified domain names to specify specific destinations by hostname.
ports Array of integers Ports from 1 to 65535 that are allowed. If any ports are specified, all unspecified ports are blocked. If no ports are specified, all ports are allowed. Port 25, the SMTP port for sending email, is always blocked.

The default settings would look like this:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "python@3.9" ]
    firewall:
      outbound:
        - ips: [ "0.0.0.0/0" ]

Support for rules Anchor to this heading

Where outbound rules for firewalls are supported in all environments.

Multiple rules Anchor to this heading

Multiple firewall rules can be specified. In such cases, a given outbound request is allowed if it matches any of the defined rules.

So in the following example requests to any IP on port 80 are allowed and requests to 1.2.3.4 on either port 80 or 443 are allowed:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "python@3.9" ]
    firewall:
      outbound:
        - ips: [ "1.2.3.4/32" ]
          ports: [ 443 ]
        - ports: [ 80 ]

Outbound traffic to CDNs Anchor to this heading

Be aware that many services are behind a content delivery network (CDN). For most CDNs, routing is done via domain name, not IP address, so thousands of domain names may share the same public IP addresses at the CDN. If you allow the IP address of a CDN, you are usually allowing many or all of the other customers hosted behind that CDN.

Outbound traffic by domain Anchor to this heading

You can filter outbound traffic by domain. Using domains in your rules rather than IP addresses is generally more specific and secure. For example, if you use an IP address for a service with a CDN, you have to allow the IP address for the CDN. This means that you allow potentially hundreds or thousands of other servers also using the CDN.

An example rule filtering by domain:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "python@3.9" ]
    firewall:
      outbound:
        - protocol: tcp
          domains: [ "api.stripe.com", "api.twilio.com" ]
          ports: [ 80, 443 ]
        - protocol: tcp
          ips: [ "1.2.3.4/29","2.3.4.5" ]
          ports: [ 22 ]

Determine which domains to allow Anchor to this heading

To determine which domains to include in your filtering rules, find the domains your site has requested the DNS to resolve. Run the following command to parse your server’s dns.log file and display all Fully Qualified Domain Names that have been requested:

awk '/query\[[^P]\]/ { print $6 | "sort -u" }' /var/log/dns.log

The output includes all DNS requests that were made, including those blocked by your filtering rules. It doesn’t include any requests made using an IP address.

Example output:

facebook.com
fastly.com
upsun.com
www.google.com
www.upsun.com

Hooks Anchor to this heading

There are three different hooks that run as part of the process of building and deploying your app. These are places where you can run custom scripts. They are: the build hook, the deploy hook, and the post_deploy hook. Only the build hook is run for worker instances, while web instances run all three.

The process is ordered as:

  1. Variables accessible at build time become available.
  2. The build hook is run.
  3. The file system is changed to read only (except for any mounts).
  4. The app container starts. Variables accessible at runtime and services become available.
  5. The deploy hook is run.
  6. The app container begins accepting requests.
  7. The post_deploy hook is run.

Note that if an environment changes by no code changes, only the last step is run. If you want the entire process to run, see how to manually trigger builds.

Writable directories during build Anchor to this heading

During the build hook, there are three writeable directories:

  • PLATFORM_APP_DIR: Where your code is checked out and the working directory when the build hook starts. Becomes the app that gets deployed.
  • PLATFORM_CACHE_DIR: Persists between builds, but isn’t deployed. Shared by all builds on all branches.
  • /tmp: Isn’t deployed and is wiped between each build. Note that PLATFORM_CACHE_DIR is mapped to /tmp and together they offer about 8GB of free space.

Hook failure Anchor to this heading

Each hook is executed as a single script, so they’re considered to have failed only if the final command in them fails. To cause them to fail on the first failed command, add set -e to the beginning of the hook.

If a build hook fails for any reason, the build is aborted and the deploy doesn’t happen. Note that this only works for build hooks – if other hooks fail, the app is still deployed.

Automated testing Anchor to this heading

It’s preferable that you set up and run automated tests in a dedicated CI/CD tool. Relying on Upsun hooks for such tasks can prove difficult.

During the build hook, you can halt the deployment on a test failure but the following limitations apply:

  • Access to services such as databases, Redis, Vault KMS, and even writable mounts is disabled. So any testing that relies on it is sure to fail.
  • If you haven’t made changes to your app, an existing build image is reused and the build hook isn’t run.
  • Test results are written into your app container, so they might get exposed to a third party.

During the deploy hook, you can access services but you can’t halt the deployment based on a test failure. Note that there are other downsides:

  • Your app container is read-only during the deploy hook, so if your tests need to write reports and other information, you need to create a file mount for them.
  • Your app can only be deployed once the deploy hook has been completed. Therefore, running automated testing via the deploy hook generates slower deployments.
  • Your environment isn’t available externally during the deploy hook. Unit and integration testing might work without the environment being available, but you can’t typically perform end-to-end testing until after the environment is up and available.

Crons Anchor to this heading

The keys of the crons definition are the names of the cron jobs. The names must be unique.

If an application defines both a web instance and worker instances, cron jobs run only on the web instance.

See how to get cron logs.

The following table shows the properties for each job:

Name Type Required Description
spec string Yes The cron specification. To prevent competition for resources that might hurt performance, use H in definitions to indicate an unspecified but invariant time. For example, instead of using 0 * * * * to indicate the cron job runs at the start of every hour, you can use H * * * * to indicate it runs every hour, but not necessarily at the start. This prevents multiple cron jobs from trying to start at the same time.
commands A cron commands dictionary Yes A definition of what commands to run when starting and stopping the cron job.
shutdown_timeout integer No When a cron is canceled, this represents the number of seconds after which a SIGKILL signal is sent to the process to force terminate it. The default is 10 seconds.
timeout integer No The maximum amount of time a cron can run before it’s terminated. Defaults to the maximum allowed value of 86400 seconds (24 hours).

Note that you can cancel pending or running crons.

Cron commands Anchor to this heading

Name Type Required Description
start string Yes The command that’s run. It’s run in Dash.
stop string No The command that’s issued to give the cron command a chance to shutdown gracefully, such as to finish an active item in a list of tasks. Issued when a cron task is interrupted by a user through the CLI or Console. If not specified, a SIGTERM signal is sent to the process.
.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "nodejs@20" ]
    crons:
      mycommand:
        spec: 'H * * * *'
        commands:
          start: sleep 60 && echo sleep-60-finished && date
          stop: killall sleep
        shutdown_timeout: 18

In this example configuration, the cron specification uses the H syntax.

Example cron jobs Anchor to this heading

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
    # The name of the app container. Must be unique within a project.
    myapp:
        # The location of the application's code.
        source:
            root: "/"
       stack: [ "php@8.3" ]
        crons:
          # Run Drupal's cron tasks every 19 minutes.
          drupal:
            spec: '*/19 * * * *'
            commands:
              start: 'cd web ; drush core-cron'
          # But also run pending queue tasks every 7 minutes.
          # Use an odd number to avoid running at the same time as the `drupal` cron.
          drush-queue:
            spec: '*/7 * * * *'
            commands:
              start: 'cd web ; drush queue-run aggregator_feeds'
.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
    # The name of the app container. Must be unique within a project.
    myapp:
        # The location of the application's code.
        source:
            root: "/"
       stack: [ "ruby@3.3" ]
        crons:
          # Execute a rake script every 19 minutes.
          ruby:
            spec: '*/19 * * * *'
            commands:
              start: 'bundle exec rake some:task'
.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
    # The name of the app container. Must be unique within a project.
    myapp:
        # The location of the application's code.
        source:
            root: "/"
       stack: [ "php@8.3" ]
        crons:
          # Run Laravel's scheduler every 5 minutes.
          scheduler:
            spec: '*/5 * * * *'
            cmd: 'php artisan schedule:run'
.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
    # The name of the app container. Must be unique within a project.
    myapp:
        # The location of the application's code.
        source:
            root: "/"
       stack: [ "php@8.3" ]
        crons:
          # Take a backup of the environment every day at 5:00 AM.
          snapshot:
            spec: 0 5 * * *
            cmd: |
              # Only run for the production environment, aka main branch
              if [ "$PLATFORM_ENVIRONMENT_TYPE" = "production" ]; then
                  croncape symfony ...
              fi              

Conditional crons Anchor to this heading

If you want to set up customized cron schedules depending on the environment type, define conditional crons. To do so, use a configuration similar to the following:

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "php@8.3" ]
    crons:
      update:
        spec: '0 0 * * *'
        commands:
          start: |
            if [ "$PLATFORM_ENVIRONMENT_TYPE" = production ]; then
              upsun backup:create --yes --no-wait
              upsun source-operation:run update --no-wait --yes
            fi            

Cron job timing Anchor to this heading

The minimum time between cron jobs being triggered is 5 minutes.

For each app container, only one cron job can run at a time. If a new job is triggered while another is running, the new job is paused until the other completes.

To minimize conflicts, a random offset is applied to all triggers. The offset is a random number of seconds up to 20 minutes or the cron frequency, whichever is smaller.

Crons are also paused while activities such as backups are running. The crons are queued to run after the other activity finishes.

To run cron jobs in a timezone other than UTC, set the timezone property.

Paused crons Anchor to this heading

Preview environments are often used for a limited time and then abandoned. While it’s useful for environments under active development to have scheduled tasks, unused environments don’t need to run cron jobs. To minimize unnecessary resource use, crons on environments with no deployments are paused.

This affects all preview environments, and production environment that do not yet have a domain attached to them.

Such environments with deployments within 14 days have crons with the status running. If there haven’t been any deployments within 14 days, the status is paused.

You can see the status in the Console or using the CLI by running upsun environment:info and looking under deployment_state.

Restarting paused crons Anchor to this heading

If the crons on your preview environment are paused but you’re still using them, you can push changes to the environment or redeploy it.

To restart crons without changing anything:

  1. In the Console, navigate to your project.
  2. Open the environment where you’d like the crons to run.
  3. Click Redeploy next to the cron status of Paused.

Run the following command:

upsun redeploy

Sizing hints Anchor to this heading

The following table shows the properties that can be set in sizing_hints:

Name Type Default Minimum Description
request_memory integer 45 10 The average memory consumed per request in MB.
reserved_memory integer 70 70 The amount of memory reserved in MB.

See more about PHP-FPM workers and sizing.

Source Anchor to this heading

The following table shows the properties that can be set in source:

Name Type Required Description
operations An operations dictionary Operations that can be applied to the source code. See source operations
root string The path where the app code lives. Defaults to the root project directory. Useful for multi-app setups.

Container profile Anchor to this heading

By default, Upsun allocates a container profile to each app and service depending on the range of resources it’s expected to need.

Each container profile gives you access to a specific list of CPU and RAM combinations. Using the Upsun CLI or Console, you can then pick a CPU and RAM combination for each of your apps and services.

Additional hosts Anchor to this heading

If you’re using a private network with specific IP addresses you need to connect to, you might want to map those addresses to hostnames to better remember and organize them. In such cases, you can add a map of those IP addresses to whatever hostnames you like. Then when your app tries to access the hostname, it’s sent to the proper IP address.

So in the following example, if your app tries to access api.example.com, it’s sent to 192.0.2.23.

.upsun/config.yaml
applications:
  myapp:
    source:
      root: "/"
    stack: [ "php@8.3" ]
    additional_hosts:
      api.example.com: "192.0.2.23"
      web.example.com: "203.0.113.42"

This is equivalent to adding the mapping to the /etc/hosts file for the container.

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